Frequently asked questions

  • Our activities

    • What is coal seam gas? view answer

      Coal seam gas (CSG) is a naturally occurring gas formed as a by-product of the coal formation process. Coal seams store both gas and water, with the gas kept in place by the water. CSG is typically 95-98% methane with a small amount of nitrogen and, in some instances, contains carbon dioxide. One of the most common uses of CSG is for electricity generation, but is also commonly used for industrial purposes.

    • What is an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)? view answer

      Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) are prepared for major development projects, such as Arrow Energy's coal seam gas developments. An EIS will: 

      • - identify potential adverse and beneficial impacts of a project
      • - ensure Arrow finds practical and workable solutions to protect environmental, social and economic values that may be affected by a project
      • - identify environmental management measures for a project
      • - ensure community and stakeholder issues are taken into account in the EIS assessment process.

      Prior to Government issuing approval for major development projects, regulatory authorities must be satisfied that the potential impacts of these projects have been properly assessed and that appropriate measures are in place to avoid or minimise environmental, social and economic impacts.

      Preparing an EIS is generally considered the most appropriate assessment method. Arrow's activities are governed by the Queensland Petroleum and Gas (Production and Safety) Act 2004 and the Environmental Protection Act 1994. The Commonwealth's Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 also requires Arrow to demonstrate that activities will not significantly affect matters of national environmental significance.

      To view Arrow's EIS please visit our Project Assessment (EIS) page.

    • What is an EIS groundwater study? view answer

      An EIS Groundwater Study further informs Arrow’s groundwater management strategy. An EIS Groundwater Study aims to identify:
      - groundwater use within the study area
      - baseline data from existing groundwater bores in the study area
      - the extent of the groundwater resource that may be affected by the project
      - any potential impacts to local groundwater aquifers over time and after the project is complete
      - management options to monitor and mitigate effects

    • What laws govern Arrow's activities? view answer

      Arrow's activities are governed by the Queensland Petroleum and Gas (Production and Safety) Act 2004 and the Environmental Protection Act 1994. Under the legislation, companies like Arrow have a set of rights and obligations with respect to resources accesses and the land under which the resources are located. 

    • What is hydraulic fracturing (fraccing)? view answer

      Hydraulic fracturing (fraccing) is a safe and environmentally responsible process which has been used for more than half a century in areas where the character of a coal seam impedes gas flowing readily into a gas well. In these areas, the coal may need to be stimulated to enhance the flow of gas. Fraccing is the most common method used to increase the permeability of the coal seam.

      Not all gas wells require fraccing. Generally the technique is only used when the well intersects low permeability coal seams, which usually only occurs in very deep wells. Since most of Arrow's tenements in the Surat Basin have relatively shallow coal, fraccing has not been required. However, it is possible that in some deeper portions of the Surat Basin, where coal seams are below about 600m, it may be necessary to use fraccing in the future.

    • What fraccing fluids are used by Arrow? view answer

      About 99.5 per cent of the material pumped into a frac well comprises of water and sand. The remaining 0.5 per cent is made up of minor quantities of additives which are used to: enhance the fracture initiation; help lubricate the flow of the sand into the fractures; prevent microbial or chemical reactions following the introduction of surface water; and to prevent the formation of scale deposits that may affect the well or pumps.
      Depending on the location and geological formation being fracced, different additives may be used in different wells. In general, the additives used in fraccing fluids are made of substances commonly found in many household products.

      While there are a large number of fluids and compounds that are currently being used in Australia for fraccing treatments, Arrow affirms that the following fluids are currently used by our company where fraccing has been required:

      • Water (used for drinking, bathing, cooking)
      • Sand (cat litter, tile mortar, arts and crafts, glass manufacture)
      • Magnacide 575 or Phosphonium sulfate (cooling systems/paper making industry)
      • Sodium hypochlorite (disinfectant, bleaching agent, cleaners, milk production, dental sterilisation, medical use)
      • Acetic acid (vinegar, found in citrus fruits, descaling agent)
      • Claytrol or Polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride (water treatment, textiles, cosmetics, drinking, bathing, cooking)
      • Claytreat 3C or Tetramethyl ammonium chloride (type of salt)

      For a comprehensive list of fluids used in CSG fraccing activities, visit the Department of Environment and Heritage Protection (DEHP), formerly DERM, website.

    • What is BTEX? view answer

      BTEX is an acronym for the group of chemicals Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene. Although these chemicals can be found in a number of everyday products, such as oil-based lubricants, diesel, petrol and even in some soft drinks, they are regarded as hazardous substances.

      Recently, in the United States, concerns have been raised that BTEX compounds, used during the hydraulic fracturing (fraccing) process may have contaminated groundwater sources. As the fraccing process is sometimes used in the drilling of coal seam gas (CSG) wells in Queensland, the state government has taken the precautionary step of prohibiting the use of BTEX in fraccing activities.

      Arrow Energy has not and does not use BTEX.

      The Queensland Government requires all CSG companies to monitor BTEX levels with regular well testing. Despite being prohibited in the fraccing process, it is still possible for small traces of BTEX to be detected as these chemicals can be found in petroleum-based products used in the well drilling process, and also occur naturally in coal and petroleum. If traces of BTEX are detected at Arrow Energy’s well sites, Arrow will seek to determine where the chemicals have come from and, where possible, they will be eliminated.

    • What is underground coal gasification (UCG)? view answer

      Coal seam gas refers to the naturally occurring gas trapped in underground coal seams by water and ground pressure. The extraction of CSG is considered a gas extraction activity and is governed by the Petroleum & Gas Act. CSG has been commercially produced in Queensland for more than 15 years and currently accounts for more than 70 percent of the state’s gas consumption.

      Underground coal gasification (UCG) refers to the process of burning underground coal seams to produce coal gas (syngas). The extraction of syngas is considered a coal extraction activity and is governed by the Mining Act. UCG provides the opportunity to utilise large reserves of otherwise inaccessible coal for use as a fuel or a chemical feedstock.

    • How do I find out what's happening in the Surat Basin (south west Queensland)? view answer

      Arrow has 300 producing coal seam gas wells within a 700km2 area to the south and west of Dalby. We are currently planning our largest gas exploration and development program in the region, called the Surat Gas Project. The project involves ongoing exploration in the Surat Basin to identify the most economic and environmentally acceptable areas for future gas production. The exploration program will be focused in an area extending from Wandoan to Dalby and south to Millmerran and Goondiwindi, where the company currently holds exploration tenures and environmental approvals to conduct exploration activities. Field development and gas production will be undertaken based on the results of the exploration. To find out more email

    • How do I find out what's happening in the Bowen Basin (central Queensland)? view answer

      Arrow holds several large exploration tenements that together cover about 8,700km2 of the northern Bowen Basin between Glenden in the north and Middlemount in the south. Exploration has been conducted within the largest and oldest tenement Authority to Prospect (ATP) 1103 (formerly ATP 364), since it was first granted to a previous holder in 1986. Arrow commenced limited exploration in 2000, which led to development of the Moranbah Gas Project supplying gas to Townsville.

      Arrow currently has 150 gas producing wells across the Bowen Basin. We are now undertaking exploration in the area, with the view to expanding our operations to meet the growing international demand for cleaner energy. To find out more email

  • Landholder questions

    • What are Arrow's land access rules? view answer

      As part of our commitment to ensuring your property is treated with respect, we have introduced 12 Land Access Rules, which make clear to our staff and contractors Arrow’s expectations for their behaviour while working on your property.

      These rules are compulsory for all Arrow staff and contractors, and failure to comply will result in serious disciplinary action, dismissal or termination of contract.

      The rules are:
      1. Only enter a property with the approval of your supervisor, who has cleared access with the landholder.
      2. Only conduct activities that are approved within the access conditions.
      3. Follow the directions of the landholders. Report any directions that are not within the access conditions.
      4. Report landholder discussions, complaints or incidents to your supervisor or Land Liaison Officer.
      5. Carry personal and vehicle identification showing that you are an employee or contractor of Arrow.
      6. Keep sites tidy, ensure all rubbish is removed from site.
      7. Do not interfere with the landholder's property, equipment or operations. Use approved tracks and laydown areas. Drive at less than 10kph within 200m of buildings. Leave gates as signed or found.
      8. Do not take firearms, weapons, animals, illicit drugs or alcohol onto the property.
      9. Do not light fires unless authorised. Smoking is only permitted in the designated locations.
      10. Do not enter a site during or after wet weather without consent of the Land Liaison Officer (who has cleared access with the landholder) except in the case of a declared emergency.
      11. Do not negotiate with landholders. Only Land Liaison Officers are permitted to negotiate activities and access conditions.
      12. Do not threaten or pressure landholders or other people on the property.

    • What are 'make good' options? view answer

      The following 'make good' options may be employed by Arrow Energy should there be a reduction in the capacity of a water bore to supply water for its intended purpose:

      - deepening of bore

      - upgrading of pumping equipment

      - lowering pumping equipment by adding rising mains to increase the available head

      - reconditioning pumping infrastructure

      - drilling a new bore

      - providing an alternative water supply

      - other forms of compensation.

      'Make good' arrangements will be agreed between Arrow and the owner of an affected water bore.

    • Can I still use the surrounding land for grazing or farming? view answer

      Yes, surrounding land can be used for grazing or farming.

    • Can I refuse access to my property? view answer

      Arrow’s preference is to develop working relationships with landholders on whose properties we would like to operate, working together with landholders to resolve concerns. We prefer to work with landholders to gain voluntary access agreements.

      The Mineral and Energy Resources (Common Provisions) Act 2014 (MERCP Act) allows for Arrow to access your land, providing we have a current resource authority [e.g. Authority to Prospect (ATP) or Petroleum Lease (PL)] and provided you have received a valid Notice of Entry and/or have signed a Conduct and Compensation Agreement. These instruments respectively relate to the undertaking of preliminary and advanced petroleum activities.

      While Arrow has legal rights to enter your property under the Act, we also recognise our responsibilities to you and your property. This includes appropriate compensation (should gas development occur); duty of care with respect to fencing, stock and weed control; and flexible work practices that minimise the impact of our activities.

    • Will I be compensated for access to my property and activities carried out on my land? view answer

      Arrow is responsible for compensating for all impacts of its activities on a landholder’s property. We are working to minimise impacts through research into design, processes and procedures. Arrow has developed a compensation framework for landholders that recognise potential impacts of coal seam gas (CSG) operations on a property. The amount of compensation depends on the level of CSG activity proposed on a property, and other impacting factors. More information is available in the Landholder Compensation fact sheet.

    • How is noise managed? view answer

      Arrow considers the emission of noise in the selection and design of equipment to be used at wellheads and on facility plant and equipment. Where sensitive areas could potentially be affected by generated noise, we take all reasonable measures to minimise the noise to acceptable levels. Should a noise issue be reported, we will investigate and take appropriate measures.

    • What will be done to stop the spread of weeds? view answer

      As a community member, landowner and responsible business, Arrow is committed to managing the potential spread of weeds.  Our integrated management includes weed identification, weed control, vehicle and machinery cleaning where required, and monitoring.

    • Can I use the excess water for agriculture? view answer

      Arrow is investigating treatment and beneficial uses for water which would include a series of licenses and approvals for any water to be provided or used.

    • What effect will the project have on aquifers and groundwater? view answer

      Arrow and the Queensland Government appreciate there is concern about possible impacts arising from CSG activities. The government has introduced enhanced management provisions to set a simple process of trigger thresholds, obligations to ‘make good’ any impacts on water wells, and an independent groundwater management and modelling regime. Arrow will model how groundwater may be impacted, monitor what happens, consult with water well owners and report to government.

    • What should I do if there is a coal seam water leakage on my property? view answer

      If you suspect an Arrow well or pipeline is leaking coal seam water, please contact Arrow immediately on 1800 779 488. We will send a maintenance crew to inspect the well or pipeline, and we will keep you informed of response plans.

    • Are the well sites safe for stock? Will they be fenced? view answer

      Well sites will be surrounded by strong fence panels to prevent stock access.

    • What if I do not agree with what is proposed on my land? view answer

      The Petroleum and Gas (Production and Safety) Act 2004 does not provide for objection to tenures being granted over private property because resources below ground are the property of the state on behalf of the people of Queensland. Arrow will consult with all landholders about any issues and seek to reach agreement on all matters concerning the proposed development. If agreement cannot be reached, the matter may be referred to the Land Court of Queensland for a determination. Arrow currently has no cases before the Land Court.

    • What should I do if I suspect a well or pipeline on my property is leaking gas? view answer

      If you suspect an Arrow well or pipeline is leaking gas, please contact Arrow immediately on 1800 779 488. We will send a maintenance crew to inspect the well. Do not go within 30 metres of the well or pipeline leak, especially with flammable goods or items that may cause a spark. Arrow will keep you informed of response plans.

    • Do I get a say in what happens on my land? view answer

      Yes, Arrow provides an opportunity for landholders to work cooperatively in the placement and development of exploration and production plans on your land. These discussion take place in advance of the requirement to enter into a Conduct and Compensation Agreement so that the final plans are agreed and captured between the parties to  suit land form, existing agricultural terrain and seasonal harvesting conditions. Please read the Area Wide Planning fact  sheet.

    • Can I plant crops above the gathering lines? view answer

      All farming machinery can be used over gathering lines. As a general rule, gathering lines are buried about 0.75m under the ground, however they may be buried deeper in agricultural areas. Discussions regarding current and planned agricultural activities form an important part of the initial and ongoing discussions and agreements between Arrow and landholders.

    • What are you going to do with the salt? view answer

      Arrow’s plans for salt are dependent on Arrow’s water treatment solution. Arrow will continue to investigate solutions that avoid treating the salt as a waste, however Arrow’s Environmental Impact Statement included disposal of salt via regulated landfill. Arrow has committed to no brine or salt treatment or disposal on Intensively Farmed Land.